Always check provincial and municipal regulations before disturbing any wildlife.
There are many ways to deal with wildlife pests but legal and moral issues must be considered before any action is taken.
First: Is the animal a real pest? I you take no action will it cause any harm or problems. Is there any danger to humans, pets or property?
Fencing is often the most effective way to keep wildlife away from property. Building suppliers should be able to offer advice on what materials are best and installation methods.
Any trap used for control must be humane and approved by provincial authorities. A trappers licence may be required. Permits may be required to transport any animal.
Relocation of an animal may result in the animal not being able to survive in the new environment.
It is not legal to fumigate any area to eliminate animals.
Discharging a firearm in many areas is not legal especially in populated areas. Those with a hunting licence must adhere to hunting regulations.
Sick or Diseased Animals
Any sick or diseased animal should be reported to local Fish and Wildlife officials.
Raccoons bend corn stalks down to eat the ears.
They break open and scoop out watermelons. They can be devastating for poultry farmers and will occasionally attack family pets. Control measures include keeping pet food put away inside a tightly closed metal container, securing garbage can lids, and erecting a 5- to 6-foot fence or a two-wire electric fence. Repellents may help temporarily. Live trapping in a wire cage trap is usually effective. Consult your local government animal control department for further information. If trapping raccoons, use caution. They may be cute but can be vicious with very sharp teeth and claws.
Common Infectious Diseases of Raccoons
Raccoons are susceptible to a large number of different infectious agents including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Several of these infectious diseases are zoonotic. Veterinarians are faced with the diagnosis and treatment of wildlife including raccoons and need to be able to make the correct diagnosis as well as educate clients on the potential hazards associated with exposure to raccoons.
Leptospirosis is a common bacterial disease in raccoons caused by a number of different species of Leptospira. Transmission is thought to occur via urine contamination of feed and water. Other natural bacterial infections reported in raccoons are listeriosis, yersiniosis, pasteurellosis, and tularemia.
Viral diseases of raccoons include rabies, canine distemper, raccoon parvoviralenteritis, infectious canine hepatitis, and pseudorabies.
Canine distemper virus infection is probably the most common viral disease in raccoons. The clinical signs, and gross and histopathologic lesions in raccoons are similar to distemper in dogs. Neurologic signs due to distemper virus infection in raccoons are virtually indistinguishable from rabies induced neurologic disease.
Parvoviral enteritis in raccoons is due to a unique raccoon parvovirus that is most antigenically similar to feline parvovirus. Clinical signs include bloody diarrhea, lethargy, inappetance, and loss of fear of humans. Raccoons do not develop clinical disease when exposed to canine parvovirus. The most common method in which raccoons acquire pseudorabies virus infection is via the ingestion of virus-infected pig carcasses.
An important parasitic disease of raccoons is toxoplasmosis, which is a protozoal disease caused by Toxoplasmagondii. Felids are the definitive host for T. gondii, and they excrete potentially infective oocysts in their feces. Toxoplasmosis in raccoons is commonly associated with immunosuppression from canine distemper virus infection. Necrotizing encephalitis and pneumonitis are frequent lesions associated with toxoplasmosis.
Another parasite of importance in raccoons is Baylisascarisprocyonis, which is an intestinal roundworm of raccoons. Baylisascaris is a known cause of cerebral nematodiasis and ocular and visceral larval migrans in domestic and non-domestic animals, and humans. Transmission commonly occurs through the ingestion of infective eggs, which results in aberrant migration in hosts other than raccoons.
Baylisascaris Infection (Bay-liss-ass-kuh-ris) Raccoon Roundworm Infection
This sleek-bodied animal has a lustrous, chocolate brown to black fur with white spotting on the chin and throat. The tail is long and bushy. Average weight is 1-4 pounds, the size of a small housecat, the male being heavier than the female.
Distribution – The mink occurs throughout all of Canada along rivers, creeks, ponds, lakes and marshes.
Biology – They prey chiefly on muskrats then mice, rabbits, chipmunks, fish, snakes, frogs and birds and are known to raid poultry houses. Foxes, bobcats and great horned owls are known predators. They den near water in abandoned burrows and move often. In the spring 3-6 young are born blind and naked. The pelts are highly valued; most of those used commercially are raised on ranches.
Moles Click to see this page:
Skunks Click to go to skunk page
Woodrats (Bushy tailed, Packrats) Click to see this page
Voles are mouselike rodents somewhat similar in appearance to pocket gophers. They have a compact, heavy body, short legs, short-furred tail, small eyes, and partially hidden ears. The long, coarse fur is blackish brown to grayish brown. When fully grown they can measure 5 to 8 inches long, including the tail. Eastern meadow voles look like mice with tiny ears and short tails.
Voles spend most of their time below ground in their burrow system. The clearest signs of their presence are the well-traveled, aboveground runways that connect burrow openings; the runways are usually hidden beneath a protective layer of grass or other ground cover. The maze of runways leads to multiple burrow openings that are each about 1-1/2 to 2 inches in diameter.
Voles are active day and night, year-round. They are normally found in areas with dense vegetation. Voles dig many short, shallow burrows and make underground nests of grass, stems, and leaves. In areas with winter snow, voles will burrow in and through the snow to the surface. For control information see this web site:
The weasel family belongs to the Order Carnivora, “the meat-eaters.” With the exception of the river otter, all members of the weasel family feed primarily on insects and small rodents. Their diet consists of whatever meat they can obtain and may include birds and bird eggs.
As predators, they play an important role in the animal community. They live off the annual surplus of animals they prey upon. Generally, they capture those animals which are less fit to survive, usually the young, old, injured or sick. Predators also tend to hunt the most abundant prey, turning to another prey species if the numbers of the first become scarce. In this way, they seldom endanger the long-term welfare of the animal populations they prey upon.
The same agility and ferocity used in hunting is used for defence. Members of the weasel family have few natural enemies. People can be the greatest threat to their survival.
GREY SQUIRRELS MAJOR PROBLEM FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA
Illegal transportation of Grey Squirrels in live catch traps from urban centres such as Victoria are contributing significantly to the spread of this population up island and throughout the Vancouver area . BC Wildlife Branch lists grey squirrels as a species that is known to destroy property and is detrimental to native wildlife. Nut Growers on the Saanich peninsula near Victoria are inundated with Grey Squirrels and farmers are facing massive losses of nut crops. At the Cowichan Garry Oak Preserve in Duncan Grey Squirrels are damaging bird boxes, killing young birds, eating acorns and are impacting on the overall ecological health of the site. Nipping off the new shoots of the Garry Oak tree when it sprouts is having a devastating impact on the Gary Oak population which is already Red Listed by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment. These squirrels have now been seen and captured in Nanaimo.
Vancouver Island residents urban and rural are experiencing a population explosion in Grey Squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis). The grey squirrel weighs approximately 275g, has a body height of approximately 25cm and a tail length of approximately 20cm. On the other hand the Western Red Squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) is approximately half the size of the Grey’s. The Grey Squirrels’ shear size allows them to dominate and extirpate the Red’s from their traditional territory.
The most serious damage in urban areas arises where the squirrel enters the roof spaces of houses by climbing the walls or jumping from nearby trees. Once inside, they chew woodwork, ceilings, and insulation on electrical wiring or tear up the loft insulation to form a drey. The noise nuisance from a litter of squirrels can cause many sleepless nights. They are also a pest in the garden—they raid fruit crops, bird feeders and can cause damage to trees by stripping the bark, which often results in the weakening of young shoots and a misshapen tree.
The Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture are working closely together in combating the over population of Grey Squirrels on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland. The Kania Trap 2000 is proving to be the most successful trap in controlling the Grey Squirrel. Transportation and Re-location of live wildlife is an offence under the BC Wildlife Act without the written consent from the Ministry of Environment. For more information Contact: Calvin Kania. firstname.lastname@example.org
Some basic information from University of North Dakota.
Snakes of North America Photos