Norway Rats 

The Norway rat is large and robust, weighing in at about seven to 18 ounces. It has a blunt snout, small ears covered with short hairs, brown shaggy fur and a belly that is gray to yellowish white in color.
It is found throughout Canada.

Roof Rats

The roof rat is dark brown to black in color and measures 13 to 18 inches in length including tail. They weigh 5-9 ounces, are slender, and their ears are large and nearly hairless. Their droppings are long and cylindrical.

Nesting Requirements
Roof rats nest outside in trees, woodpiles and debris, and in dense vegetation. Inside, roof rats prefer to nest in the upper levels of a building in the attic and ceiling.

House Mouse

The house mouse is small, slender and weighs only about 0.4 to one ounce. It has a pointed snout, large ears with hair, and its fur is grayish to light brown on top, light brown (not white) on the underside, with scales showing on it’s tail. It can be found throughout  Canada.

Deer Mouse

This mouse has gained much attention in the past decade because it is the most common carrier of the deadly Hantavirus.
The deer mouse is about six inches long to the tip of its tail.
It is brown to grayish on top, has a white belly and feet, large ears, Large eyes and a furry tail that is always white on the underside.
Deer mice are active all year, and store food for the winter season much as the tree squirrels do. Nuts, seeds, berries, and insects are their usual food. Outdoors, these mice construct nests in stumps, under logs, in hollow tree cavities, or in abandoned bird nests. The litters vary in size between two and seven young, and several litters may be born throughout the year.
Deer mice live mainly in rural areas but they frequently enter houses, garages, storage sheds, and stored campers during the colder months where they may damage foodstuffs and furnishings. In unoccupied summer homes or cottages, damage to upholstered furniture can be extensive.

Rodent Control

Because of the high risk to human health and potential damage to food, electrical wiring, insulation, clothing and personal effects rodent control should be taken very  seriously in the home or business. Prevention is the best method of control.

The three R’s of rodent control:

1. Eliminate the Reason rodents are in or near your home or place of work:
FOOD: Rodent populations are always in direct proportion to the amount of food available.  Bird  feeders  are probably the number one attractant for rats and mice around Canadian homes. Pet food, poorly stored human food, garbage and compost are other good food sources for rodents.

SHELTER:  Mice and rats like to stay out of sight, even when feeding if possible to avoid predators.  They do most of their food foraging in the dark.  Clutter in the home, debris, construction lumber, firewood, wooden sidewalks and decks on the ground all provide a safe shelter for rodents. Once they sense the warmth of a building they will try to  find entry points.

2.  Eliminate Routes.  Skull size is the only thing that restricts rodents entering small holes or cracks. For a mouse this could be as small as a pen. Rats will burrow or chew to make small holes large enough. Mice will often chew wiring where it passes through holes. Holes made for  plumbing provide easy access from the basement or crawl space to all levels of a home and the attic.        Steel wool packed around wiring and pipes will help keep mice out of living quarters. Metal flashing should be used for rats. Crawl space vents should be screened with tight fitting 1/4 inch mesh. Exterior doors must fit tight especially at the sill. Keep them closed if you have rodents. Repair foundation cracks with expansion cement. Use stainless flex screens to block brick wall weep holes.

3. Eliminate the RODENT
Snap traps are the most common and  safest way to eliminate rodents in a building, if used properly. They should never be placed where other animals or children may come in contact. Poison baits are the most effective method of control when there are numerous rodents present. When bait is used, the directions on the packaging must be adhered to strictly.

Proper tamper resistant bait boxes are much safer and more effective than open space placement. Live trapping rodents is not effective and not recommended. ( Mice and rats are cannibals )  Rodents carrying disease and it is best not to help spread it to other locations. Tracking powders should only be used by licensed pest control service personnel.
Why you should not live trap mice.       

See also:  How to get rid of rodents    

Mouse exclusion device